Multiple Sclerosis Resource Centre
  • Home
  • MSRC Grand Opening 30/05/12
  • About MS
  • MSRC Services
  • Get Involved
  • MS Research News
  • MSRC Groups
  • Useful Resources
  • Welcome To Josephs Court, MS Centre Of Excellence
  • Advertising
  • Best Bet Diet Group
  • E-Newsletter
  • Contact Us
  • Investor in People
    You are here : Home » MS Research News » New Discoveries » Immunoglobulins

    Immunoglobulins

    A A A
    [Print this page]

    Share |


    Discovery May Lead to Novel Treatments for Autoimmune and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
    By pinpointing the mechanism through which an intravenous therapy combats chronic inflammatory diseases, researchers have discovered that they may be able to replace the time-consuming infusion therapy with an injection that could be given during a quick office visit. Investigators at Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City have discovered that intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) or antibody therapy works, in part, by attaching to a receptor known as FcγRIII and blocking the function of interferon gamma, a major inflammatory factor. Only a small component of the IVIG solution, 0.5%, is responsible for blocking this receptor.

    “The study suggests that it’s not the whole preparation itself, but the immune complexes within the preparation that are causing the therapeutic effect,” said Lionel Ivashkiv, M,D,, director of Basic Research at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) who led the study. Instead of using IVIG, which is pooled from thousands of blood donors, clinicians may be able to use small amounts of so-called immune complexes, or even design synthetic drugs that will avoid problems, such as potential exposure to infectious agents, that are associated with using blood products.

    The study appears in the January issue of the journal Immunity.

    For years, doctors have used IVIG to treat patients with autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as dermatomyositis, Kawasaki disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, but just how the therapy works has remained a mystery. Some researchers have shown that IVIG works, in part, by activating a receptor known as FcγRIIb, which then suppresses auto-antibody-mediated inflammation. HSS researchers wondered whether an immune system protein called interferon gamma (IFN-γ) could be involved—many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are caused or exacerbated by an overexpression of this protein.

    To test their theory, the investigators turned to macrophages, immune cells that engulf bacteria and are stimulated to kill their prey by IFN-γ. The researchers found that in test tube studies of macrophages, IVIG could inhibit the action of IFN-γ signaling.

    Next, they tested the effects of IVIG in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes, a bacteria that is usually controlled by IFN-γ. They found that mice treated with IVIG, because of the suppression of IFN-γ, had much more severe infections than mice treated with saline. Experiments in a mouse model of immune thrombocytopenic purpura also revealed that immune globulin inhibited IFN-γ. IVIG sparks this inhibition by docking on a receptor called FcγRIII.

    In another experiment, researchers turned their focus to a different question—which component of IVIG is responsible for its therapeutic effects. IVIG is composed of 99.5% monomeric IgG and 0.5% so-called immune complexes. The researchers cultured macrophages with the different IVIG components and discovered that the immune complexes were responsible for the suppression of IFN-γ.

    “This study suggests that we can move away from using these IVIG preparations and generate very defined (synthetic) immune complexes, which have the potential to work better, be easier to deliver, and have fewer problems in terms of the infusion part of the therapy,” Dr. Ivashkiv said.

    Usually, patients must receive IVIG infusions in the hospital setting, which can involve three to four hours per day, for three consecutive days. “IVIG is time intensive, it’s somewhat expensive, and there are sometimes shortages, because it’s a human product,” Dr. Ivashkiv explained. “A lot of the limitations of the therapy is just the volume and the quantity of the material that is used. Some people get volume overload or severe allergic reactions.”

    If clinicians can deliver only the active agent of IVIG and/or design immune complexes with recombinant materials, they may be able to avoid many of these problems, say researchers. “It could be done as an injection, as part of an office visit,” commented Dr. Ivashkiv.

    In addition to HSS researchers, investigators from the Weill Medical College of Cornell University and Weill Graduate School of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the British Columbia Cancer Agency in Vancouver, and the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Australia contributed to the study. A Cancer Research Institute Fellowship and the National Institutes of Health supported the work.

    Source: Newswise © 2007 Newswise. All Rights Reserved.(26/01/07)

    © Multiple Sclerosis Resource Centre

    Related Items
    Abnormal Liver Tests and MS
    AlphaB-crystallin
    Aluminium and Multiple Sclerosis
    Antagonist compounds
    Antibodies, B Cells,T-Cell Activation, Immune Response
    Apolipoprotein D
    Bacteria & MS
    Biomarkers and MicroRNA
    Blood tests
    Bone Marrow Cells and MS Treatment
    Bowmann-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC)
    Brain Atrophy, Lesion Loads, White and Grey Matter
    Brain Inflammation
    Brain Iron Deposits
    Calcium Binding Proteins
    Cerebro-Spinal Fluid & Spinal Cord
    Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI)
    CRMP-2
    CXCL1, 7, 12
    Cytokines & Chemokines
    Dendritic Cells
    Estrogen Receptors
    Fibrinogen, Mac-1 and Microglia
    HDL
    HERV-Fc1
    Histamine and MS
    Hormones And MS Research
    Infections and Multiple Sclerosis Relapses
    Interleukin-1beta
    JAK-STAT inhibitors
    Kallikrein 6
    Lipids & MS
    Medical Imaging
    Mycoplasmas And Bacteria
    N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) & Glucosamine
    Natural Interferon Beta
    Natural Killer Cells
    Nerve and Brain Cell Research
    Neurosteroids
    Olig 1 Gene Discovery
    Oligodendrocytes and Astrocytes
    Pesticides and Multiple Sclerosis
    PKC-theta
    Plasma Exchange
    Potential Viral Causes of MS
    Proteomics
    Recombinant Human Erythropoietin
    Regeneration Research
    RNA and RNAi
    Synthetic Small Molecules
    Technology
    Tetanus Vaccine and Possible MS Protection
    Tetramers
    The Blood Brain Barrier
    Tremors And MS
    Uric Acid
    Urinary Problems
    Vascular Function And MS
    Vision and MS


    Did you find this information useful? Would you like to comment on this page? Let us know what you think! We welcome all comments and feedback on any aspect of our website - please click here to contact us.